Preheat oven to 350 degrees.
Sift flour and salt together.
Coarsely chop 1 cup cashews; set aside.
Process remaining 1 1/2 cups cashews in a food processor until finely chopped.
Pour in oil.
Process until mixture is creamy, about 2 minutes.
Put cashew mixture, butter, and sugars in the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the paddle attachment; mix on medium speed until fluffy, about 2 minutes.
Mix in egg and vanilla.
Reduce speed to low; gradually add flour mixture.
Mix in reserved chopped cashews.
Shape dough into 1 1/2-inch balls; space 2 inches apart on 2 parchment-lined baking sheets.
Bake 6 minutes; gently flatten with a spatula.
Bake until bottoms are just golden, 6 to 7 minutes more.
Let cool completely on sheets on wire racks.
Melt caramels with cream in a small saucepan over low heat, stirring.
Using a spoon, drizzle caramel over cookies; let set.
Store airtight in single layers.