Expecting good things to happen may be key to a long life.
People who were optimistic had greater odds of achieving “exceptional longevity,” or living to 85 and beyond, according to a study published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
That link was present in both sexes, and stayed in place even after researchers accounted for smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, diet, BMI and depression.
“Our team was surprised and reassured to see such similar findings across men and women,” Lewina Lee, assistant professor of psychiatry at the Boston University School of Medicine, told TODAY.
“We know that optimism is about 25% heritable, which means that there is room to modify [it].”
The study was based on data from 69,744 women in the Nurses’ Health Study and 1,429 men in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.
The women, who have been followed since 1976, completed an optimism assessment in 2004. The questionnaire asked how strongly they agreed with statements like, "In uncertain times, I usually expect the best" or "I'm always optimistic about my future."
The men, who have been followed since 1961, completed a similar type of optimism scale in 1986.
The researchers then divided both cohorts into groups based on their levels of optimism — highest, lowest and those in-between — and looked at their mortality statistics. For both men and women, higher optimism levels were associated with living longer and higher odds of reaching age 85.
Being in the group with the most positive outlook was related to an 11-15% longer life span, compared to the least optimistic group, the study found. The findings suggest optimism may be an important strategy to promote healthy aging, the authors wrote.
Scientists don’t fully understand the pathways from optimism to health and longevity, Lee said, but there are some theories.
Optimistic people are more likely to have goals and the confidence to reach them, so optimism may help people cultivate and maintain healthier habits, she said. Previous studies have found people who are highly optimistic have a lower chance of dying prematurely from stroke, heart disease and even cancer.
Optimistic people may also be better at regulating their emotions during stressful situations. They’re less likely to be angry or agitated, said Josh Klapow, a clinical psychologist and behavioral scientist in the School of Public Health at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
“It’s not that people who are optimistic don’t get stressed or don’t get angry, but it happens less frequently,” Klapow, who was not involved in the study, told TODAY. “So physiologically, it puts them at less risk for all of the negative consequences that we know from stress.”
They’re also more likely to form social connections because they see the good in people, he added. Such bonds protect against loneliness, which comes with its own serious health risks.
Some people are naturally born to be more pessimistic, but it’s absolutely possible for them to learn how to be more positive, Klapow said.
“This is not about telling yourself to be happy,” he noted.
“We can be sad and hopeful; we can be sad and look towards a better future. It’s those things that have protective factors for us.”
How to boost your positive thinking:
- Maintain a daily gratitude practice: Keep a gratitude journal and write down three or more things that you are grateful for in your life at the end of each day. It can be a supportive spouse, healthy kids, a sunny day or engaging job.
- Keep track of positive events in your life: Every night, write down three or more positive events that happened that day. Perhaps your boss made an encouraging comment, you got to spend time with your friends or the commute was surprisingly good.
- Visualize your best possible self: Regularly and clearly imagine a future in which everything has turned out as well as possible and you have achieved all of your life goals.
Studies have found such daily exercises reorient your brain towards looking for the positive.
“We spend a lot of time looking around the world for things that could harm us or things that have gone wrong that we don’t want to happen again,” Klapow said.
“So forcing your brain to look for things you’re grateful for and positive things teaches your brain that we can both avoid negative and also seek positive.”