TODAY   |  November 13, 2013

Bringing diabetes to the forefront

Nearly 26 million children and adults in America are diagnosed with diabetes. Endocrinologist Rita Kalyani and dietitian David Grotto visit TODAY to talk about everything from testing for diabetes, to building a healthy lifestyle and diet around a diagnosis.

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This content comes from Closed Captioning that was broadcast along with this program.

>>> nearly 26 million children and adults in this country have diabetes. according to the american diabetes association another 79 million have what's called prediabetes.

>> so what are the symptoms of the disease and how can you prevent it? she is at the johns hopkins diabetes center and david is a registered dietitian and author of the best things you can eat. good morning to both of you.

>> good morning.

>> let's talk first about when you educate patients and you hear the question all the time, what's the difference between type one diabetes and type two?

>> education is so key to what we do. in type one diabetes , the pancreas cannot produce any insulin at all. so patients need to be on insulin right away. type two, the pancreas still produces insulin but the body doesn't know what to do. it can't respond. insulin resistance is a problem. type one is more common in kids. type two diabetes is more linked to family history and obesity.

>> what's some of the risk factors as we talk about those?

>> family history is a big risk factor for type two diabetes . ethnicity, minority populations, african american , asian, indians, hispanic. overweight or obese, physical inactivity. gestational diabetes is a big risk factor for women as well.

>> let's talk about symptoms really quickly. what do you look for?

>> we call them the polys, frequent urination , frequent thirst and feeling hungry a lot. sometimes nauseous. weight loss is a common symptom people will see because the body can't metabolize glucose as well.

>> what are we looking at?

>> we've seen a tremendous growth in what we can offer our patients with diabetes in terms of the devices and technology we have. this is what we call a self-monitor glucose meter and what the patient will do is they will take a test strip and insert the test strip in the meter.

>> right.

>> it will calibrate to make sure it's the right meter and the right test strip and then there will be a sign that says apply blood. on this end is where the patient will apply blood. they'll do so using a lancet. now we have devices that make it easier for patients to use. you can see the needle here. tiny. they put the cap on. they press the button, the needle comes in and out.

>> and you can adjust the depth as well.

>> so much better than it used to be. we'll this on

>> we want to get to the nutrition over here.

>> welcome to my world .

>> okay. let's talk about what the diet looks like for somebody who is even prediabetic or diabetic?

>> the main message here is don't look at this as a diabetic diet . this is acceptable for the entire family. a lot of these things we thought maybe shouldn't be in the diabetic diet , i'm here to show they're perfect.

>> sugar is a lot of those that people think you can't have sugar at all.

>> we have a lower sugar chocolate milk . berry. blueberries, raspberries, strawberries. anything of that nature. it's a great choice. we have rich eggs which are fantastic for helping to reduce inflammation. key message is start off your day with 15 to 25 grams of protein so you don't overeat.

>> what should by looking at on the label?

>> carbohydrate is the main thing you want to look at and control that throughout the course of the day.

>> thank you so much. quick