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Video: Inside the college admissions process

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    MEREDITH VIEIRA, co-host: This morning on EDUCATION NATION TODAY , inside the college admissions process . It is nail-biting time for high school seniors, the applications are in, but the answers still weeks away. So how do schools decide who gets in and who misses the cut? TODAY got an exclusive peek at what happens behind closed doors.

    Unidentified Man #1: That's the one thing I fear, if we're going to take a risk on a student, I'd like to know that there's some sort of compelling argument to do so.

    VIEIRA: It's a give and take, 15 minutes that can decide a student's future.

    Unidentified Woman #1: But I don't think we should deny her.

    VIEIRA: At Grinnell , a top liberal arts college in Iowa , two admissions officers read an application. Their comments are shared.

    Unidentified Man #2: Wait list in order, but I could even go with a deny.

    Man #1: Vicious. Were you reading this one at 3 AM ?

    VIEIRA: Then the application is parsed, grades and scores are scrutinized...

    Unidentified Woman #2: His SAT 2 in history...

    Unidentified Woman #3: Right.

    Woman #2: ...was a 750, so that doesn't...

    Woman #3: Doesn't -- right.

    Woman #2: ...make sense in him getting C's.

    VIEIRA: ...essays evaluated...

    Man #1: His essay really kind of spoke to his willingness to step out and try new things.

    VIEIRA: ...comparisons made....

    Unidentified Man #3: She's far and away the lowest in the group, which probably ends it for her.

    VIEIRA: ...extracurriculars weighed.

    Unidentified Woman #4: Why should we treat a musician differently from the way we treat an athlete?

    VIEIRA: And finally, a vote.

    Man #2: Who would be in favor of a wait list? OK. And, Quentin , you're still sticking to your deny, huh?

    Man #1: I stick to it.

    Man #2: Well, sorry, you're outvoted.

    VIEIRA: Seth Allen is Grinnell 's dean of admission and financial aid.

    Mr. SETH ALLEN: I would love to say that the admission process is a very straightforward process where every student is considered on their own merits, but that simply isn't true. The process is highly subjective.

    VIEIRA: Which means the pros and cons of a candidate are sometimes debated.

    Man #1: That's a great example of an essay, I mean it tells us a lot about the student.

    Mr. ALLEN: Well, but I guess I would take a contrarian perspective, he's talking about how much he's changed, but do we really see that in the evidence of his application?

    Woman #2: For me, the issue is more of the transcript coupled with the light extracurricular involvement.

    Offscreen Voice: Mm-hmm.

    Man #2: He's at a school and in an area where we'd probably like to have some more kids.

    Mr. ALLEN: These people can be very persuasive, if someone provides a rationale that you hadn't thought of, they raise issues that you hadn't really considered, your mind can change.

    Man #2: Who would be in favor of admitting?

    Unidentified Woman #5: Still.

    Man #2: One. Tina. OK. Wait list? OK.

    Mr. ALLEN: It's little things in the process that please us, surprise us, cover something that we think, wow, this is someone unusual that we'd like to include in the class.

    Man #2: Who would vote to admit? OK. We'll call her an admit then.

    VIEIRA: And we want to thank Grinnell College for its cooperation. Jacques Steinberg is The New York Times national education correspondent and moderator of its blog " The Choice ." Jacques , good morning to you.

    Mr. JACQUES STEINBERG (National Education Correspondent, The New York Times): Good morning.

    VIEIRA: I got nervous just watching that, it took me back to when I was a senior in high school , because you never do get over that feeling.

    Mr. STEINBERG: No.

    VIEIRA: And is that the way the application process works pretty much at all schools across the board?

    Mr. STEINBERG: Yeah. Grinnell uses a template that exists at about 50 or so highly selective schools that, you know, deny probably more students than they accept. And it's a very, very involved process where there is scrutiny of every sort of aspect.

    VIEIRA: But they said something that might make students feel a little better about the process , in the sense that it is subjective, it's really not a referendum so much on the kid as it is maybe what the college needs at that particular moment.

    Mr. STEINBERG: No. I think that kids and parents should never read this process as a referendum on how good a job they did as students or how good a job they did as parents. As you could see from that video, there are so many factors at play at one time, and as an outsider you can't possibly know what they're looking for at that moment they're around that table.

    VIEIRA: And yet there are certain guidelines, right, that they follow?

    Mr. STEINBERG: Certainly. And, you know, for example, the rigor of your curriculum, how hard were the courses you took is the very first thing that they look at in most instances. And that of...

    VIEIRA: Did you stretch yourself, then?

    Mr. STEINBERG: Yeah. And that's something that sort of is within your control, but don't go overboard and feel that you have to take, you know, five advanced placement courses a year.

    VIEIRA: And what about extracurricular? How much do they weigh that?

    Mr. STEINBERG: That's certainly in the mix as well, but I think kids and parents tend to think that you need a million activities when, you know, commitment to a few activities, something outside the classroom for a few years, often will suffice.

    VIEIRA: Is just as good. What about age and gender and maybe what part of the country that you live in, are those things put in...

    Mr. STEINBERG: These are the sorts of things where, you know, it can kind of make you crazy as an outsider, they'd like to admit somebody from every state, so if you're lucky enough to be the kid applying from North Dakota , that might give you an edge. But gender is certainly important. They're very up-front about the fact that racial and socioeconomic diversity is important. How as an outsider could you possibly figure out whether you're going to get in or not?

    VIEIRA: Exactly. But the essay, again, listening to those folks in that room, is so important. And for one kid it worked against the child actually, the essay, because it didn't match with what they were looking at in the transcript.

    Mr. STEINBERG: But again, you can't know what they're looking for.

    VIEIRA: Right.

    Mr. STEINBERG: I think the essay is one of those things that's within your control. How can you come alive as a person in a way your test scores and grades don't make happen?

    VIEIRA: So for a high school junior watching this now, what's the takeaway here?

    Mr. STEINBERG: I mean, it's a crazy thought, but if you can't control this process and you can't out-strategize it, maybe it's counterintuitive, but can't you relax a little bit and sort of be yourself and just put yourself out there and let the chips fall where they may?

    VIEIRA: Well, easier said than done , but hopefully this will calm some kids down. Jacques , thank you so much .

TODAY
updated 2/16/2011 12:04:13 PM ET 2011-02-16T17:04:13

This is a nerve-wracking time of year for high school seniors, as they've submitted college admissions and are now just waiting to hear back. TODAY went behind the scenes of the college admissions process at Grinnell, a top-ranked, highly selective liberal arts college in Iowa.  Seth Allen, dean of admission and financial aid at Grinnell College, answers questions from a TODAY producer about what really goes on when admissions officers decide applicants' fate.

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TODAY: Has anyone’s mind actually been changed in committee?

Seth Allen, Grinnell College: Oh, I think all the time. I think part of that is a function of discovering information about a student that didn't quite come on the radar in the reader's review of the applicant.

Give me a specific example. No names, but of a time when your mind was changed and what changed it.

I can remember very clearly last year talking about a student who I wasn't particularly impressed with. I felt that the application was flat; the writing wasn't compelling to me; the recommendations, while good, they weren't powerful, they didn’t support the student’s admission.

… And then one of the other committee members made the argument and said, look, this child is from a single-parent home, they spend a lot of time helping to support a younger sibling, they don't have as much time for the extracurricular activities. You could tell that the school didn’t really know the student, because the student couldn't stay after and participate in a lot of activities. And I think seeing through a different lens to some degree, slowing down and really looking at the student on her own individual merits, that made all the difference.

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One of the examples we saw today is one kid didn't particularly interview well.  How do you factor it all together in making your decision?

The important thing about how Grinnell and many other selective colleges practice admissions is we don't just look at grades or rank in class or standardized test scores. Instead we look at a wide variety of factors: the kinds of courses students take, certainly how well they do in them, how they score on standardized tests, what their teachers have to say about them, what kind of an essay they write and the perspective they bring to their writing, the activities that they are involved in, their work history. All of those factors contribute to what's known as the holistic review of a candidate.  So it's not just one factor, it's a variety of factors.

Certainly one of the basic things we look for is a student be successful academically at the institution. Beyond that, though, it's little things in the process that surprise us, uncover something that we think, wow, this is someone who is different in our process, unusual, that we would like to include in the class. That might come from a letter of recommendation from a teacher or a guidance counselor, it might come from an unusual perspective that we find out through the essay, it may come from an alumni interview and that person gives us a sense of how that student has succeeded in his or her local community that we otherwise wouldn't have known about.

One of the admissions officers wanted to see the "cluster" of applicants all the time. Why did she want to see it, why is it important and what is the cluster and what role does it play in the decision making process?

I would love to say that the admission process is a very straightforward process where every student is considered on her own merits, but that simply isn't true, especially in highly selective admissions.

…First of all, as an applicant you're constantly being compared to every other applicant in the pool.  Secondly if you're applying from a high school where there's a large number of other applicants you're going to be compared against other students applying from that high school. Now that does not mean that if there are 20 applicants that we won't admit all 20 if they're all standout, interesting students that we would love to have in class. But it does mean that we pay particular attention to whether you come from a high school that has lots of other applicants, or maybe even the state that you live in, geography could play a part in this.

…We want to make sure we're helping our counselor colleagues that are on the other side of the desk by not admitting someone who maybe is middle of the high school class, and denying someone who's at the top of that class.

I like a sense of what is it that's attractive to the applicant about Grinnell. What are their actual reasons? I feel much more connected to an applicant if I feel that they've actually done their homework and they have substantive reasons for wanting to apply, be accepted and actually enroll here.

For the student in my mind where there's a toss-up -- I could trade this one student for another student who looks fairly similar -- that's a really important and differentiating question. Have you actually done the kind of research that will allow you to know if this is a good fit?

One question on your supplemental application was asking the applicant to choose another mascot for the school and explain the choice. What does a seemingly innocuous question like that tell you about a student?

Well, it's interesting the students who take on that question who actually believe that Grinnell is searching to replace its mascot. We're not. It's a purely rhetorical question. We ask students to actually demonstrate to us what do they know about Grinnell, our past history and where we're going in the future, and in a creative way.  This is a way to get them to parrot back what they learn in the view book and on the website. So this again is a little bit about why are you looking at Grinnell?

What are you favorite answers?

I think my favorite answers are the students who think a bit outside of the lines, who aren't constrained by thinking of some pithy mascot answer but are really expansive. And actually when they answer that question, what they're answering is a lot more about them than it is the college. 

What would be something to give you pause or concern in an application?

Certainly it's hard to see students who have a dip in their grades, especially later on. We're far more lenient early on in their high school career, if 9th grade is off to a rocky start, if a student is transitioning into an academic environment. We're much more prone to give that student a break in the process and discount their first year in high school.

Many of the students we see, they're taking progressively more challenging academic loads but as they take more challenging loads, as their grades start dipping, that worries us a little bit because college is a step up than high school. If they’re having a hard time taking a more difficult or more challenging curriculum and not doing as well, we wonder what the trajectory will be in college.

A second red flag which happens from time to time is students who reveal their disposition through their essay or another piece of writing that seems counter to what we look for here at Grinnell. I'll give you an example. It's a very international community here.  we've got lots of students form other countries.  we send over half our students abroad. So a student writing in their essay that they're not interested din getting a wider perspective on the world, they don't see the value of meeting people from other cultures, that student we would look at very very closely. That would be a huge red flag as whether that student culturally or socially would be a good fit for Grinnell.

What are the things that win you over?

Unusual activities, students who at the tender age of 17 have already accomplished so much. I personally have seen things like running political campaigns, certainly writing novels and getting published, writing money- making computer programs, coding software -- those are probably some of the more unusual things. We see lots of students who've had a significant national experience, they've been on committees, or been in programs that sent them around the country or around the world.

Beyond that, it's a couple of things. It's the adult, the high school guidance counselor or the teacher who makes particular notice of a student and gives us some context -- basically in so many words says this is an unusual 17 year old, this is someone who takes more risks or has a bigger picture or has broader ambitions.

It might be in the essay itself. I think plainly the essay is one of those things that often breaks the tie on an applicant and the student who can, in their own words, paint an effective picture of themselves through demonstrating to us what matters to them, because of the topic they choose to write on and how they choose to write about it and the risks they take in setting up their subject.

Reading (applications) takes place perhaps not 24 hours a day but it takes place very early in the morning and well into late at night. So at some point there's a bit of weariness that sets in reading one good applicant after another. The student that's able to cut through that, an interesting essay, an unusual topic, someone who makes us laugh, that's someone that stands out for us. 

Any words of wisdom for students applying: How personally should they take it?

I think that the right perspective on this is those letters that they receive in April are far more a reflection of the needs of the institution than they are a commentary on the student's ability to be successful in the future. 

I know that this is a process that basically pumps students up to a point or near point of hysteria and I don’t think, in my heart of hearts, that's what our intent is as an institution.  The selective college admissions game has put such a great premium on this idea of “you are where you get selected” that I feel it’s natural the families feel angst and students feel crushed if they're not admitted to the schools they want to be admitted to.

I will say having talked to students over the years that most of them, within their first semester or first year of college, most of them feel where they ended is a perfect fit.  They didn't realize it at the time.

What I would say to the families is if you were to give it a year you'll find out that things happen for the right reason, that if you take full advantage of the institution that you end up attending, it will be a fantastic experience and it really is at that point all about you and what you are able to get out of your environment.

So while seniors are waiting to hear back, what should they be doing now?

One of the great things a student could do now is to begin thinking about the end. OK, assuming I get admitted to these schools, how am I going to make this decision and not leave it until April when they don't have a lot of time to make these decisions. And of course they're seniors and have a lot going on second semester senior year. So it would be good to elongate that and spend several months trying to figure that out.

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