With the roll-out of “Australia,” the big-budget epic starring two Australians (Hugh Jackman, Nicole Kidman), directed by an Australian (Baz Luhrman), and produced and distributed by a company owned by an Australian (Fox/Rupert Murdoch), a question arises: Whatever happened to the American epic?
Indeed, last June, the American Film Institute trotted out its list of the top 10 films in various genres, including epics, and most of these epics were about Europeans (“Lawrence of Arabia”) or Romans (“Ben-Hur”) or set in Biblical times (“The Ten Commandments”). Some involved Americans (“Saving Private Ryan”), but only one was about Americans and set in America: “Gone with the Wind” at No. 4.
So if this is our definition of “American” (“about,” “set in”), and if our definition of “epic” involves something grand, often romantic and nostalgic, certainly long (at least 150 minutes of screen time and 5 to 10 years of character time), and set in the past with a hard-to-define “sweeping” element, the question remains: What are the great American epics?
Here’s a list. Your results may vary.
5. “Dances with Wolves” (1990)
“Lawrence of Arabia” topped AFI’s list of great epics, and, in terms of story (if not greatness), “Dances” is an American “Lawrence”: the rebellious white man going native. Lt. Dunbar (Kevin Costner) essentially dies during the Civil War and is resurrected, slowly, as Dances with Wolves.
Costner probably overdoes the irony — the naked white man greeting the “savage” — and for many he overdoes the nobility of this tribe. At the same time, this is one of the most well-rounded portraits of a Native American tribe. The Sioux here joke, tease, go to war, scalp white hunters and celebrate the scalping. We’re still required a white guide (as opposed to the African-American and Italian stories, below), but this gives the film its true drama: the tension between cultures that have never met.
4. “Malcolm X” (1992)
“The Autobiography of Malcolm X” appealed to a young Barack Obama because, as he writes in “Dreams From My Father,” Malcolm’s “repeated acts of self-creation spoke to me.”
One could argue that, at least in Spike Lee’s epic, Malcolm (Denzel Washington) is less creator than created. He simply switches mentors. His life, in fact, divides neatly into two acts. In the first, he leads a life of drugs and crime as the head of his own gang. He winds up in prison. In the second act, he runs from the Nation of Islam’s guns and leads a life of both black nationalism and international brotherhood as the head of his own ministry. He winds up assassinated.
The most powerful of his conversions is the one in prison. Malcolm’s knowing hustler smile runs into the blank wall of Brother Baines’ (Albert Hall) certitude until, forced to question why he straightens his hair, and why black is always negative and white is always positive, his knowingness crumbles and he admits he doesn’t even know his own name.
3. “The Right Stuff” (1983)
True, most epics are nostalgic and this one’s cynical — cynical about the way heroes are sold to the public — but it doesn’t mean the men who are sold, the seven Mercury astronauts, aren’t heroes. It’s the process the movie is cynical about. And if these seven men don’t quite have the right stuff of the original hero, Chuck Yeager (Sam Shepherd) — who broke the speed of sound to no media attention in 1947, and about whom the movie is nostalgic, because he represents a time before the process mucked things up, when you did the thing just for the doing of it — well, the original astronauts still had some pretty good stuff.
However, the movie ends in the wrong place. It gives us, with a nostalgic, heroic flourish, Gordon Cooper (Dennis Quaid) going into space. It should’ve ended with Yeager walking away from the plane crash. “Is that a man?” Yep, that’s a man.
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2. “Gone with the Wind” (1939)
The most popular movie of all time (adjusted for inflation) is a story between a callow woman and a cad, in which the abolition of slavery is mourned. “Here in this pretty world,” the beginning titles tell us, “Gallantry took its last bow. Here was the last to be seen of Knights and their Ladies Fair, of Master and of Slave...”
The Depression was Golden Age of filmYet somehow it still works. Maybe because, despite the abundance of dashing silhouettes against red skies, the movie is too smart to believe in such romance. Knights? “All we’ve got is cotton and slaves and... arrogance,” Rhett Butler (Clark Gable) famously tells the southern men hot for war.
Ladies Fair? Scarlett O’Hara (Vivien Leigh) is a spoiled, pouting thing who craves what she can’t have because she can’t have it, and upends lives, including her own, to get it. Why does such an awful character keep appealing to us? Here’s a clue: Scarlett has more personality in one raised eyebrow than most modern female characters have in their entire bodies.
1. “The Godfather – Parts I and II” (1972-74)
This usually gets dumped into the gangster genre, but there is no better example of the American epic than these two films. They take us from the small-pox isolation of a small Italian boy, Vito Corleone (Robert De Niro, Marlon Brando), on Ellis Island in 1901, staring out behind iron bars at the ultimate symbol of American liberty, to that boy’s youngest son, Michael (Al Pacino), nearly 60 years later, wealthy and powerful beyond Vito’s imagination, but just as isolated and gated in his Nevada compound.
If the tragedy of the first film is that Michael becomes his father (he becomes Godfather), the tragedy of the second film is that Michael isn’t enough like his father. Vito, from nothing, and with great dignity and respect, creates a family-run empire. Michael expands and consolidates the empire but in the process loses his family. “I don’t have to wipe everyone out, Tom,” Michael says. “Just my enemies.” But you can tell from his eyes, which get darker and deader as the films progress, that everyone is becoming his enemy. He kills to protect, but he’s killing what he should protect. Bye-bye, Fredo.
Did it have to wind up this way? Vito traveled west to New York but carried something with him the entire time. Michael traveled west to Nevada but lost something in the process — if he ever had it.
Erik Lundegaard explains why “Giant,” “The Color Purple” and other American epics didn’t make the cut at http://eriklundegaard.com/index.php?itemid=266.
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